- Hemoglobin: is a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. A blood test can tell how much hemoglobin has in blood.
- Total leukocyte count (TLC) and differential leukocyte count (DLC): Leukocytes are white blood cells, which are the workhorses of the immune system. They defend the body from infection and foreign material.
These lab values don't really indicate any disease in particular. Anyone who is immunocompromised, such as chemotherapy patients, AIDs patients, people receiving steroids, etc. may have low leukocyte counts. Low leukocyte counts indicate that immune system is not functioning optimally and that person may be more susceptible to infection.
- ESR: The erythrocyte sedimentation rate, also called a sedimentation rate or Biernacki Reaction, is the rate at which red blood cells sediment in a period of 1 hour. It is a common hematology test that is a non-specific measure of inflammation. To perform the test, anticoagulated blood is placed in an upright tube, known as a Westergren tube, and the rate at which the red blood cells fall is measured and reported in mm/h.
Since the introduction of automated analyzers into the clinical laboratory, the ESR test has been automatically performed.
The ESR is increased by any cause or focus of inflammation. The ESR is increased in pregnancy or rheumatoid arthritis, and decreased in polycythemia, sickle cell anemia, hereditary spherocytosis, and congestive heart failure. The basal ESR is slightly higher in females.
- HCT: Hematocrit is a blood test that measures the percentage of the volume of whole blood that is made up of red blood cells. This measurement depends on the number of red blood cells and the size of red blood cells
- PERIPHERAL SMEAR: blood film or peripheral blood smear is a thin layer of blood smeared on a microscope slide and then stained in such a way to allow the various blood cells to be examined microscopically. Blood films are usually examined to investigate hematological problems (disorders of the blood) and, occasionally, to look for parasites within the blood such as malaria and filarial.